This article was produced and financed by University of Bergen
Mapping the world for climate sensitivity
By using information gathered by satellites, a group of biologists have developed a new method for measuring ecosystem sensitivity to climate variability.
University of Bergen
The international team of researchers has used this method to map which areas are most sensitive to climate variability across the world.
“Based on the satellite data gathered, we can identify areas that, over the past 14 years, have shown high sensitivity to climate variability,” says researcher Alistair Seddon at the Department of Biology at the University of Bergen (UiB).
Their work was recently published in Nature.
Climate sensitivity aroung the world
The researchers have identified climate drivers of vegetation productivity on monthly timescales. They have found climate sensitivity in ecosystems around the globe.
The research has been partly funded by Statoil, and led by Professor Kathy Willis at UiB’s Department of Biology and Director of Science at Royal Botanic Kew Gardens and Professor of Biodiversity in the Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford.
“We have found ecologically sensitive regions with amplified responses to climate variability in the Arctic tundra, parts of the boreal forest belt, the tropical rainforest, alpine regions worldwide, steppe and prairie regions of central Asia and North and South America, forests in South America, and eastern areas of Australia,” says Seddon.
Creating a sensitivity index
The metric they have developed, the Vegetation Sensitivity Index (VSI), allows a more quantifiable response to climate change challenges and how sensitive different ecosystems are to short-term climate anomalies; for example a warmer June than on average, a cold December, a cloudy September, etc. The index supplements previous methods for monitoring and evaluating the condition of ecosystems.
“Our study provides a quantitative methodology for assessing the relative response rate of ecosystems – either natural ones or those with a strong anthropogenic footprint, to climate variability,” Seddon explains.
The researchers used satellite data from 2000 to 2013.
“First of all, the method identifies which climate related variables – such as temperature, water availability, and cloudiness – are important for controlling productivity in a given location,” says Seddon.
“Then we compare the variability in ecosystem productivity, which we also obtain from satellite data, against the variability in the important climate variables.”
VSI provides an additional vegetation metric that can be used to assess the status of ecosystems globally scale.
“This kind of information can be really useful for national-scale ecosystem assessments, like Nordic Nature,” Seddon states. “Even more interesting is that as satellite measurements continue and so as the datasets get longer, we will be able to recalculate our metric over longer time periods to investigate how and if ecosystem sensitivity to climate variability is changing over time.”
- Seddon et al. (2016): Sensitivity of global terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability. doi:10.1038/nature16986